ATrain Education

 

Continuing Education for Health Professionals

MI: Pain and Symptom Management

Module 10

References

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Aoki Y, Sugiura S, Nakagawa K, et al. (2012). Evaluation of nonspecific low back pain using a new detailed visual analogue scale for patients in motion, standing, and sitting: Characterizing nonspecific low back pain in elderly patients. Pain Research and Treatment, vol. 2012, Article ID 680496. Doi:10.1155/2012/680496. Retrieved February 25, 2018 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prt/2012/680496/.

Aziznejadroshan P, Alhani F, Mohammadi E. (2016). Experiences of Iranian nurses on the facilitators of pain management in children: A qualitative study. Pain Research and Treatment, vol. 2016, Article ID 3594240. Doi:10.1155/2016/3594240. Retrieved March 3, 2018 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prt/2016/3594240/.

Bali KK, Venkataramani V, Satagopam VP, et al. (2013). Transcriptional mechanisms underlying sensitization of peripheral sensory neurons by granulocyte-/granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factors. Molecular Pain 9:48. Doi:10.1186/1744-8069-9-48. Retrieved February 26, 2018 from https://molecularpain.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1744-8069-9-48.

Carter BD, Threlkeld BM. (2012). Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain. Pediatric Rheumatology 10:15. Doi:10.1186/1546-0096-10-15. Retrieved July 29, 2016 from https://ped-rheum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1546-0096-10-15.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2017a). Opioid Overdose. Retrieved March 7, 2018 from https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2016). Prevention Status Reports 2016: Prescription Drug Overdose—Michigan. Retrieved March 2, 2018 from https://wwwn.cdc.gov/psr/?state=Michigan.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2016a). CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain—United States, 2016. Retrieved March 5, 2018 from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/rr/rr6501e1.htm?s_cid=rr6501e1_w.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2016b). Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths — United States, 2000–2014. MMWR January 1, 2016 / 64(50);1378-82. Retrieved March 7, 2018 from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6450a3.htm?s_cid=mm6450a3_w.

Chang Y-P, Compton P. (2013). Management of chronic pain with chronic opioid therapy in patients with substance use disorders. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice 8:21. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from http://www.ascpjournal.org/content/8/1/21.

Chou R, Deyo R, Friedly J, et al. (2017). Systemic Pharmacologic Therapies for Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review for an American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28192790.

Chou R, Deyo R, Friedly J, et al. (2017a). Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review for an American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28192793.

Chou R, Deyo R, Friedly J, et al. (2016). Noninvasive Treatments for Low Back Pain [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2016 Feb. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 169.) Retrieved March 3, 2018 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK350276/.

Chou R, Gordon DB, de Leon-Casasola OA, et al. (2016a). Guidelines on the management of postoperative pain. Management of postoperative pain: A clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ Committee on Regional Anesthesia, Executive Committee, and Administrative Council. Journal of Pain 17:2 (February), 2016: 131–57. Retrieved March 4, 2018 from http://www.jpain.org/article/S1526-5900(15)00995-5/pdf.

Collen M. (2012). Prescribing cannabis for harm reduction. Harm Reduction Journal 9:1. Doi:10.1186/1477-7517-9-1. Retrieved March 5, 2018.

Dean E, Hansen RG. (2012). Prescribing optimal nutrition and physical activity as “first-line” interventions for best practice management of chronic low-grade inflammation associated with osteoarthritis: Evidence synthesis. Arthritis, Article ID 560634. Doi:10.1155/2012/560634. Retrieved March 1, 2018 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arthritis/2012/560634/.

DeClercq V, Cui Y, Forbes C, et al. (2017). Adiposity Measures and Plasma Adipokines in Females with Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis. Mediators of Inflammation, Vol 2017, Article ID 4302412. Doi.org/10.1155/2017/4302412. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/4302412/.

Friction J. (2017). Self-Management Strategies as Part of an Integrated Approach for Pain Management. Presentation at NIH 12th Annual Pain Consortium Symposium: Multidisciplinary Strategies for the Management of Pain, May 31–June 1, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://painconsortium.nih.gov/Meetings_Events/Annual_Symposium/12th-Annual-Pain-Consortium-Symposium AND https://painconsortium.nih.gov/sites/default/files/6_Fricton_Self_Management_52017_508C_0.pdf.

Gao W, Gulliford M, Bennett MI, et al. (2014). Managing cancer pain at the end of life with multiple strong opioids: A population-based retrospective cohort study in primary care. PLoS ONE 9(1): e79266. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079266. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0079266.

Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study. (2016). Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990–2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Retrieved March 5, 2018 from http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)32154-2/fulltext#cesec130. https://Doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32154-2.

Gorodzinsky AY, Tran ST, Medrano GR, et al. (2012). Parents' initial perceptions of multidisciplinary care for pediatric chronic pain. Pain Research and Treatment, vol. 2012, Article ID 791061. Doi:10.1155/2012/791061. Retrieved March 5, 2018 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prt/2012/791061/.

Grant I. (2013, May). Medicinal cannabis and painful sensory neuropathy. Virtual Mentor. 15(5):466–69. Retrieved March 7, 2018 from http://virtualmentor.ama-assn.org/ AND http://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/2013/05/oped1-1305.html.

Hodgman MJ, Garrard AR. (2012). A review of acetaminophen poisoning. Critical Care Clinics 28:499–516. Retrieved March 5, 2018 from https://pedclerk.uchicago.edu/sites/pedclerk.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/1-s2.0-S0749070412000589-main.pdf.

Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2011). Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved March 4, 2018 from http://nationalacademies.org/HMD/Reports/2011/Relieving-Pain-in-America-A-Blueprint-for-Transforming-Prevention-Care-Education-Research.aspx. [Note: The IOM has been renamed as the Health and Medicine Division (HMD), National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; old URLs beginning with www.iom.edu are permanently broken.]

International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). (2017). IASP taxonomy. Retrieved March 4, 2018 from http://www.iasp-pain.org/Education/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=1698.

International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). (2013, December). New addiction criteria: Diagnostic challenges persist in treating pain with opioids. Pain: Clinical Updates XXI(5). Retrieved March 7, 2018.

International Headache Society (IHS). (2018). International Classification of Headache Disorders. Retrieved February 25, 2018 from http://www.ihs-headache.org/binary_data/3245_ichd-3-cephalalgia-2018-issue-1.pdf.

Joint Commission, The (JC). (2018). Pain Management. Retrieved March 4, 2018 from https://www.jointcommission.org/topics/pain_management.aspx.

Joint Commission, The (JC). (2018a). Standards Development. Retrieved March 4, 2018 from https://www.jointcommission.org/standards_development/.

Joint Commission, The (JC). (2018b). Facts About Joint Commission Accreditation Standards for Healthcare Organizations: Pain Assessment and Management. Retrieved March 4, 2018 from https://www.jointcommission.org/facts_about_joint_commission_accreditation_standards_for_health_care_organizations_pain_assessment_and_management/.

Kenna GA, Lewis DC. (2008). Risk factors for alcohol and other drug use by healthcare professionals. Retrieved from ttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18230139. 2008 Jan 29;3:3. Doi: 10.1186/1747-597X-3-3.

King NB, Fraser V. (2013, April). Untreated pain, narcotics regulation, and global health ideologies. PLoS Med 10(4):e1001411. Retrieved February 15, 2018 from http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1001411.

Kolosovas-Machuca ES, Martínez-Jiménez MA, Ramírez-GarcíaLuna JL, et al. (2016). Pain measurement through temperature changes in children undergoing dental extractions. Pain Research and Management, vol. 2016, Article ID 4372617. Doi:10.1155/2016/4372617. Retrieved March 3, 2018 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prm/2016/4372617/.

Kosten T, O’Connor P. (2013). Management of drug and alcohol withdrawal. New England Journal of Medicine 348:1786–95.

Kraus RC. (2018). Michigan Adopts New Requirements for Controlled Substance Prescriptions. Healthcare Law Blog. Foster Swift Collins & Smith PC. Retrieved March 1, 2018 from https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=cee131da-86a6-4bcc-a32d-d992e640f3b1.

Kuo PY, Yen JYC, Parker GM, et al. (2011). The prevalence of pain in patients attending sarcoma outpatient clinics. Sarcoma, vol. 2011, Article ID 813483, 6 pages. Doi:10.1155/2011/813483. Retrieved February 26, 2018 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sarcoma/2011/813483/.

Kreek MJ, Nielsen DA, Butelman ER, LaForge KS (2005). Genetic influences on impulsivity, risk taking, stress responsivity and vulnerability to drug abuse and addiction. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16251987. 8(11):1450-57.

Kyranou M, Puntillo K. (2012). The transition from acute to chronic pain: Might intensive care unit patients be at risk? Annals of Intensive Care 2012, 2:36. Doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-36. Retrieved March 5, 2018 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3488025/.

Lane A. (2018, March). Michigan’s new opioid laws: Saving grace or administrative nightmare? In Healthcare. Traverse City Business News. Retrieved March 5, 2018 from https://www.tcbusinessnews.com/2018/03/01/michigans-new-opioid-laws-saving-grace-or-administrative-nightmare/.

Lichtner V, Dowding D, Esterhuizen P, et al. (2014). Pain assessment for people with dementia: A systematic review of systematic reviews of pain assessment tools. BMC Geriatrics 2014 14:138. Doi:10.1186/1471-2318-14-138. Retrieved March 3, 2018 from http://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2318-14-138.

Lillie AK, Read S, Mallen C, et al. (2013). Musculoskeletal pain in older adults at the end-of-life: A systematic search and critical review of the literature with priorities for future research. BMC Palliative Care 12:27. Doi:10.1186/1472-684X-12-27. Retrieved March 1, 2018.

Lloyd P, Ryan C, Menter A. (2012). Psoriatic arthritis: An update. Arthritis Article ID 176298. Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arthritis/2012/176298/.

Lohman D, Schleifer R, Joseph J, Amon J. (2010). Access to pain treatment as a human right. BMC Med 8: 8. Retrieved March 2, 2018 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2823656/?tool=pubmed#B1.

Martelletti P, Jensen RH, Antal A, et al. (2013). Neuromodulation of chronic headaches: Position statement from the European Headache Federation. Journal of Headache and Pain 14:86. Doi:10.1186/1129-2377-14–86. Retrieved March 5, 2018.

Makris UE, Higashi RT, Marks EG, et al. (2015). Ageism, negative attitudes, and competing co-morbidities—why older adults may not seek care for restricting back pain: A qualitative study. BMC Geriatrics 2015 15:39. Doi:10.1186/s12877-015-0042-z. Retrieved March 1, 2018 from http://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12877-015-0042-z.

McGettigan P, Henry D. (2013). Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that elevate cardiovascular risk: An examination of sales and essential medicines lists in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. PLoS Med 10(2): e1001388. Doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001388. Retrieved March 5, 2018 from http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1001388.

Michigan Department of Health & Human Services (MDHHS). (2017). Michigan Epidemiological Profile, November 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdhhs/2017_State_Epidemiological_Profile_606892_7.pdf.

Michigan Department of Health & Human Services (MDHHS). (2014). Drug Poisoning Deaths in Michigan. Retrieved March 3, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdhhs/FACT_SHEET_-_Drug_overdose_Mortality_Data_525276_7.pdf.

Michigan Department of Health & Human Services (MDHHS). (2012). Unintentional Drug Poisoning Deaths in Michigan. Retrieved February 25, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdch/1_3-13-13_MortalityData9910_431271_7.pdf.

Michigan Department of Health & Human Services (MDHHS). (2009). Michigan Distributes Pain Management Guide to Health Professionals. Retrieved February 25, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs/0,5885,7-339-73970_71692_8347-223099--,00.html.

MI Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA). (2018a). Pain and Symptom Management Legislation. Retrieved February 26, 2018 from https://www.michigan.gov/lara/0,4601,7-154-72600_72603_27648_29876_29878-94426--,00.html.

MI Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA). (2018b). Michigan Automated Prescription System (MAPS). Retrieved February 26, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/lara/0,4601,7-154-72600_72603_55478---,00.html.

MI Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA). (2018c). Michigan Automated Prescription System (MAPS). Retrieved February 22, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/lara/0,4601,7-154-72600_72603_55478---,00.html.

MI Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA). (2018d). Michigan Medical Marihuana Program. Retrieved February 22, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/lara/0,4601,7-154-79571_79575---,00.html.

MI Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA). (2017). Hospices and Hospice Residences. Administrative Rules Summary. September 28, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/lara/2015-069_LR__Final_Hospice_and_Hospice_Residences9.28.17_602737_7.pdf.

Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA). (2014). 2014: The “State” of Pain in Michigan: Advisory Committee on Pain and Symptom Management (ACPSM) 2014 Recommendations. Retrieved February 27, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/lara/ACPSM_State_of_Pain_Report_to_Directors_Sept._2014_469555_7.pdf.

Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA). (2014a). Michigan Tapped by National Governor's Association to Focus on Reducing Prescription Drug Abuse: LARA, MDCH to partner on improving state's pain management. LARA News Release. Retrieved February 26, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/lara/0,4601,7-154-10573_11472-338198--,00.html.

Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA). (2013a). Michigan Pain Management 2013 Survey. Glengariff Group, Inc. Retrieved February 27, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/lara/PUBLIC_SURVEY_RESULTS-report_MARCH2013_424451_7.doc.

Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA). (2013b). Model Core Curriculum on Pain Management for Michigan Medical Schools. Retrieved February 27, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/lara/Curriculum_MODEL_CORE_FINAL_APRIL_2013_MAILING_424376_7.pdf.

Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA). (2013c). A Pain Toolkit for Healthcare Professionals. Retrieved February 10, 2018 fromhttp://www.michigan.gov/documents/lara/FINAL_Prof_Ed_Toolkit_May_3_2013_424378_7.pdf.

Michigan Executive Office. (2017). Lt. Gov. Brian Calley signs legislation to combat opioid epidemic, prevent addiction in Michigan. Retrieved March 4, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/snyder/0,4668,7-277-80388_80397-456397--,00.html.

Michigan Executive Office. (2016). Executive Order No. 2016-15. Office of Governor Rick Snyder. Retrieved February 25, 2018 from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/snyder/EO_2016-15_527251_7.pdf.

Michigan Legislature. (2018). Michigan Compiled Laws Complete Through PA 15 of 2018. Retrieved from http://www.legislature.mi.gov/(S(weenlnoavznohwibs4c2kuvr))/mileg.aspx?page=Home; http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/2017-2018/publicact/pdf/2017-PA-0248.pdf; http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/2017-2018/publicact/pdf/2017-PA-0249.pdf.

Michigan Legislature, Senate Fiscal Agency. (2016). Medical Marihuana Revisions. H.B. 4209, 4210, & 4827: Summary as Enacted. Bill Analysis. Retrieved March 4, 2018 from http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/2015-2016/billanalysis/Senate/pdf/2015-SFA-4209-N.pdf.

National Cancer Institute (NCI). (2017). Cancer Pain (PDQ)—Health Professional Version. Retrieved March 2, 2018 from https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/side-effects/pain/pain-hp-pdq#section/all.

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). (2017). Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s In a Name? Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://nccih.nih.gov/health/integrative-health.

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). (2017). Rheumatoid Arthritis. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/rheumatoid-arthritis.

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). (2017a). Rheumatoid Arthritis. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/psoriatic-arthritis.

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). (2016). Osteoarthritis. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteoarthritis.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (2016). DrugFacts: Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction. Retrieved March 7, 2018 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/understanding-drug-abuse-addiction.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (2015.) Prescription Opioids and Heroin. Retrieved March 7, 2018 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/relationship-between-prescription-drug-abuse-heroin-use/introduction.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (2014.) What Is Drug Addiction? Drug Abuse and Addiction. Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction. Retrieved March 7, 2018 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/drug-abuse-addiction.

National Institutes of Health (NIH). (2017). Twelfth Annual Pain Consortium Symposium: Multidisciplinary Strategies for the Management of Pain, May 31-June 1, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://painconsortium.nih.gov/Meetings_Events/Annual_Symposium/12th-Annual-Pain-Consortium-Symposium.

National Institutes of Health (NIH). (2013). Eighth Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research: Integrated Self-Management Strategies for Chronic Pain. Workshop summary of the meeting held on May 29–30, 2013, National Institutes of Health. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://painconsortium.nih.gov/sites/default/files/PCS_8th_Annual_2013_Summary_0.pdf.

Oshinaike O, Ojo O, Okubadejo N, et al. (2014). Primary headache disorders at a tertiary health facility in Lagos, Nigeria: Prevalence and consultation patterns. BioMed Research International, Article ID 782915. Doi:10.1155/2014/782915. Retrieved July 16, 2014.

Pain & Policy Studies Group (PPSG). (2013a). Achieving Balance in Federal and State Pain Policy: A Guide to Evaluation (CY 2013). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center. Retrieved March 4, 2018 from http://www.painpolicy.wisc.edu/sites/www.painpolicy.wisc.edu/files/evalguide2013.pdf.

Pain & Policy Studies Group (PPSG). (2013b). Achieving Balance in State Pain Policy: A Progress Report Card. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center. Retrieved February 28, 2018 from http://www.painpolicy.wisc.edu/sites/www.painpolicy.wisc.edu/files/prc2013.pdf.

Raffa RB, Pergolizzi JV, Muñiz E, et al. (2012). Designing Opioids That Deter Abuse. Pain Research and Treatment Article ID 282981. Doi:10.1155/2012/282981. Retrieved March 7, 2018.

Sarmiento-Monroy JC, Amaya-Amaya J, Espinosa-Serna JS, et al. (2012). Cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic literature review in Latin America. Arthritis Article ID 371909. Retrieved March 1, 2018 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arthritis/2012/371909/.

Schmid CW, Konrad Maurer K, Schmid DM, et al. (2013). Prevalence of medication overuse headache in an interdisciplinary pain clinic. Journal of Headache and Pain 14:4. Doi:10.1186/1129-2377-14-4. Retrieved March 5, 2018.

Schoffman DE, Wilcox S, Baruth M. (2013). Association of body mass index with physical function and health-related quality of life in adults with arthritis. Arthritis, vol. 2013, Article ID 190868. Doi:10.1155/2013/190868. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arthritis/2013/190868/.

Sessle BJ. (2012). The pain crisis: What it is and what can be done? Pain Research and Treatment, vol. 2012, Article ID 703947. Doi:10.1155/2012/703947. Retrieved March 27, 2018 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prt/2012/703947/.

Simon LS. (2013). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their risk: A story still in development. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013, 15(Suppl 3):S1. Doi:10.1186/ar4173. Retrieved March 5, 2018 from http://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/ar4173.

Srouji R, Ratnapalan S, Schneeweiss S. (2010). Pain in children: Assessment and nonpharmacological management. International Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 2010, Article ID 474838. Doi:10.1155/2010/474838. Retrieved March 5, 2018 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpedi/2010/474838/.

Stein R. (2018). Jump in Overdoses Shows Opioid Epidemic Has Worsened. All Things Considered. Shots: Health News from NPR. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/03/06/590923149/jump-in-overdoses-shows-opioid-epidemic-has-worsened.

Steiner TJ, Stovner LJ, Vos T, et al. (2018). Migraine is first cause of disability in under 50s: Will health politicians now take notice? Journal of Headache and Pain 19:17. Doi.org/10.1186/s10194-018-0846-2. Retrieved March 5, 2018.

Steiner TJ, Stovner LJ, Katsarava Z, et al. (2014). The impact of headache in Europe: Principal results of the Eurolight project. Journal of Headache and Pain 15:31. Doi:10.1186/1129-2377-15-31. Retrieved March 5, 2018.

Taylor R, Lemtouni S, Weiss K, Pergolizzi JV. (2012). Pain management in the elderly: An FDA Safe Use Initiative expert panel’s view on preventable harm associated with NSAID therapy. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research, vol. 2012, Article ID 196159. Doi:10.1155/2012/196159. Retrieved MARCH 3, 2018 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cggr/2012/196159/.

Thomas SH. (2013). Management of pain in the emergency department. ISRN Emergency Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 583132. Doi:10.1155/2013/583132. Retrieved March 5, 2018 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/583132/.

Unick GJ, Rosenblum D, Mars S, Ciccarone D. (2013). Intertwined Epidemics: National Demographic Trends in Hospitalizations for Heroin- and Opioid-Related Overdoses, 1993–2009. PLoS ONE 8(2). Retrieved March 6, 2018 from http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3ADoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0054496.

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Warner MW, Chen LH, Makuc DM, et al. (2011, December). Drug Poisoning Deaths in the United States, 1980–2008. NCHS Data Brief 81. Retrieved March 5, 2018 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db81.pdf.

Wells N, Pasero C, McCaffery M. (2008). Improving the Quality of Care Through Pain Assessment and Management. In: Hughes RG, editor. Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2008 Apr. Chapter 17. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2658/.

Xu Y, Johnson A. (2013). Opioid therapy pharmacogenomics for noncancer pain: Efficacy, adverse events, and costs. Pain Research and Treatment Article ID 943014. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24167729.

Zouikr I, Bartholomeusz MD, Hodgson DM. (2016). Early life programming of pain: Focus on neuroimmune to endocrine communication. Journal of Translational Medicine 14(123). Doi:10.1186/s12967-016-0879-8. Retrieved March 4, 2018 from https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-016-0879-8.

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