ATrain Education


Continuing Education for Health Professionals

Opioids as Medications

Module 15


Abrams DI, Couey P, Shade SB, et al. (2011). Cannabinoid-opioid interaction in chronic pain. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 90(6):844–51.

Bachhuber MA, Saloner B, Cunningham CO, Barry CL. (2014). Medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in the United States, 1999–2010. JAMA Internal Medicine 174(10)1668–73. Doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4005.

Brief History of Opium, A. (n.d.) BLTC Research, Brighton, UK. Retrieved from

Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC. (Eds.) (2011). Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12 ed. Chapter 18, Opioids, Analgesia, and Pain Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2016). Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain. Retrieved June 30, 2016 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011a).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011a). Vital Signs. Prescription Pain Overdoses in the U.S. Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011b). Vital Signs: Overdoses of Prescription Opioid Pain Relievers, United States, 1999–2008. MMWR 60(43);1487–92. Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2008). Nonpharmaceutical fentanyl-related deaths, Multiple States, April 2005–March 2007. MMWR 57(29);793–6. 2008. Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2002). Methadone Maintenance Treatment. Retrieved from

Cichewicz DL. (2004). Synergistic interactions between cannabinoid and opioid analgesics. Life Sciences 74(11):1317–24.

Dowell D, Haegerich TM, Chou R. (2016). CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain: United States, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65:1–49. DOI:

Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2010, November 19). Xanodyne agrees to withdraw propoxyphene from the U.S. market. (Darvon and Darvocet). Retrieved from

Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2009, February 23.) A Guide to Safe Use of Pain Medication. Retrieved from

Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2002, October 8). Subutex and suboxone approved to treat opiate dependence. Retrieved from

Gordon M. (2000). Medical Pharmacology; Chapter 44: Opioids. Retrieved from

Government Accountability Office (GAO). (2009). Methadone-associated overdose deaths: Factors contributing to increased deaths and efforts to prevent them. Washington: U.S. Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from

Images from the History of Medicine (IHM), National Library of Medicine, NIH. (n.d.). Mrs. Winslow’s Soothing Syrup. Retrieved February 28, 2012 from;lc:NLMNLM~1~1&mi=0&trs=1#.

Kane BE, Svensson B, Ferguson DM. (2006). Molecular recognition of opioid receptor ligands. Amer. Assoc Pharmaceut Scientists J 8:E126-37. Retrieved from

Lucas P. (2012). Cannabis as an adjunct to or substitute for opiates in the treatment of chronic pain. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(2):125–33.

Lurie, P. (2015, June 30). Naloxone: FDA hosts meeting to discuss expanded use of overdose medicine. U. S. Food and Drug Administration.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (2014, October). Drug Facts: Heroin.

Reiman A. (2009). Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs. Harm Reduction Journal 6:35. DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-6-35.

Swedlow A, Ireland J, Johnson G. (2011). Prescribing patterns of Schedule II opioids in California Workers’ Compensation. Oakland, CA: California Workers’ Compensation Institute; 2011. Retrieved from

Tatro DS, Borgsdorf LR. (2008). A to Z Drug Facts, Facts and Comparisons, 8 ed. St. Louis: Wolters Kluwer.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (USDHHS). (2016, March). Opioids: The prescription drug and heroin overdose epidemic. Retrieved from

Washington Post. (2007, August 4). Afghanistan poppy cultivation skyrockets. Byline Matthew Lee, API. Retrieved from

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