ATrain Education

 

Continuing Education for Health Professionals

FL: Alzheimers Disease and Related Dementias for Home Health

Module 3

Behavior Management

 

Behavior is how we act, move, and react to our environment. Behaviors tend to change as dementia progresses. Some are related to changes in the brain, some to personality, and some to physiological symptoms. Memory loss and changes in the ability to think logically as well as loss of judgment certainly affect behavior.

Symptoms and Behavior Changes with Each Stage

Symptoms and behaviors are related but different. A symptom is a change in the body or the mind. Loss of memory is a symptom of dementia. Changes in judgment and logical thinking are also symptoms of dementia. Anger and happiness are examples of behaviors.

Depending on the type of dementia and underlying medical issues, symptoms generally worsen gradually—over 10 to 20 years. Behaviors can change gradually or suddenly, depending on the type of dementia, environmental factors, caregiver competence, medical issues, and the overall quality of care.

Mild Dementia

In the early or mild stage of dementia, particularly Alzheimer’s dementia, forgetfulness and mild emotional changes are the most common symptoms. Although less obvious, logical thinking and judgment are also mildly affected.

At this stage, you will notice a little confusion with complex, multi-step tasks, increased frustration, and a loss of interest in usual activities. People with mild dementia understandably try to hide their confusion from friends, coworkers, and family.

Even when symptoms are mild, behavior begins to change, especially with Alzheimer’s disease. People with mild dementia know something is wrong. They begin to feel stress and anxiety and worry about the future. Depression may become an issue as they struggle with changes in their thinking.

People with mild dementia can occasionally become angry or aggressive. They often have increased difficulty making decisions. They will ask for help more often. They still might be able to work, drive, and live independently, but they will begin to need more help from family or coworkers.

Moderate Dementia

In the moderate stage of dementia, behavioral changes are more obvious to family members and caregivers. Increased forgetfulness and confusion, difficulty with communication, and impaired judgment and logical thinking are common symptoms. Cursing, arguing, yelling, or hitting can develop at this stage. Some people may repeat questions over and over, call out, or continually demand attention. Sleep problems, anxiety, agitation, and suspicion can develop.

Because the part of the brain that controls movement is not damaged, some people with moderate dementia might wander. More direct monitoring is needed than during the early stage of dementia and people at this stage may no longer be safe on their own. Caregiver responsibilities increase causing stress, anxiety, and worry among family members and caregivers. Surprisingly, many people with dementia may not be diagnosed until they reach this stage.

Severe Dementia

My mom is 96 years old and has pretty severe dementia. She still lives at home with 24/7 care. She would never survive in a nursing home. Loud noises, too many people around, people that don’t know her needs and habits, boredom, loneliness—all those things would drive stark-raving crazy. I’m sure she’d wander, yell, swear, shout, hit, and cry. At home she doesn’t do any of these things but we work pretty hard to keep things quiet, warm, and consistent for her.

Family Caregiver, Fremont, CA

People with severe dementia lose all memory of recent events. They are easily confused and are unable to make decisions. Speech, communication, and judgment are severely affected. They cannot think logically. Sleep disturbances are very common.

All sorts of challenging behaviors occur at this stage. Screaming, swearing, crying, shouting, loud demands for attention, negative remarks to others, and self-talk are common. These types of behaviors can be triggered by boredom, loneliness, depression, cold or heat, loud noises, and pain and should not be shrugged off by caregivers as they are likely related to unmet needs.

Behaviors seen in the moderate stage will likely persist and worsen in the severe stage of dementia—especially if caregivers fail to determine the cause of the unwanted behavior. Wandering, rummaging, and hoarding are common behavioral issues. Some people, particularly those with Lewy body dementia may become paranoid or experience delusions or hallucinations.

End of Life

As people with dementia approach the end of life they may lose all memory—not just memory of recent events. The damage to their brains is so severe that they are in a constant state of confusion. At this stage, people can develop other illnesses and infections.

At the end of lie, a person with dementia may experience agitation, psychosis*, delirium**, restlessness, and depression. Because of hearing and visual deficits, they are startled by loud noises and quick movements. They are often unable to communicate their needs and desires using speech. Communication may be entirely nonverbal—moaning, calling out, hitting, biting, and grabbing.

*Psychosis: loss of contact with reality.
**Delirium: a sudden, severe confusion that can be caused by infections, a reaction to medications, surgery, or illness.

The Problem-Solving Approach

The problem-solving approach encourages caregivers and family members to understand and address challenging behaviors by looking for the root cause of a behavior and treating it—usually with environmental modification, medication management, and caregiver training. The problem-solving approach identifies critical points for intervention based on observing the antecedent, behavior, and consequence (A, B, C) of a challenging behavior.

  • Antecedent—what precipitated (caused) the behavior?
  • Behavior—what is the behavior?
  • Consequence—what are the consequences of the behavior?

The ABC approach is very effective when successful strategies are shared by staff, caregivers, and family members. It helps caregivers understand when and how often a behavior occurs and offers the opportunity for discussion and planning.

The problem-solving approach is also invaluable for examining your own behaviors and responses to dementia. How you react and interact with a person with dementia can have a profound effect on a person’s behavior. Understanding your own biases, frustrations, and triggers will help you approach a person struggling with dementia with patience and compassion.

Strategies and Techniques

As a caregiver, family member, or healthcare provider, how you interact with a person with dementia requires different strategies and techniques depending on the stage of a person’s dementia. Family caregivers, interacting with only one or two people may still find it difficult to identify when a new strategy or technique is needed. Healthcare providers, because they interact with many different people in varying stages of dementia must have strategies and techniques that they can call on throughout the day.

Nevertheless, there are certain foundational strategies and techniques that are useful when interacting with someone with dementia, no matter the type or stage. Using a technique such as the problem-solving approach is recommended anytime you encounter an unwanted behavior.

Agitation and Aggression

Agitation refers to observable, non-specific, restless behaviors that are excessive, inappropriate, and repetitive. Aggression is characterized by physically or verbally threatening behaviors directed at people, objects, or self. This can include verbal, vocal, or motor activity (Burns et al., 2012).

Aggressive behaviors can be a threat to the safety of those with dementia and to those around them. These behaviors can be particularly difficult to manage because they can negatively affect the caregiver’s state of mind.

Agitated and aggressive behaviors can include:

  • Verbal insults
  • Shouting, screaming, or obscene language
  • Hitting, punching, kicking
  • Pushing, throwing objects
  • Sexual aggression (Burns et al., 2012)

Agitation and aggression occur in about 50% to 80% of nursing home residents with dementia (Ahn & Horgas, 2013). These behaviors can be related to loss of control, discomfort, fear, or be a response to a perceived threat or violation of personal space. Agitation and aggression often occur during personal care tasks involving close caregiver-resident contact (Burns et al., 2012). Pain is also associated with agitated and aggressive behaviors and nursing home residents with severe pain are more likely to display these behaviors (Ahn & Horgas, 2013).

Psychosocial and environmental interventions can reduce or eliminate agitated or aggressive behaviors. Appropriate touch and music therapy, massage, craniosacral therapy,* therapeutic touch, acupressure, and tactile massage have been shown to be successful for treating aggression. In addition, individual behavioral therapy, bright light therapy, and Montessori activities, and individualized, person-centered care based on psychosocial management is recommended (Burns et al., 2012).

*Craniosacral therapy: a hands-on technique that uses soft touch to release restrictions in the soft tissue surrounding the central nervous system.

For people with dementia, antipsychotics may reduce aggression and psychosis, particularly among those most severely agitated. However, in older people, antipsychotics are associated with increased overall mortality, worsening cognitive impairment, hip fracture, diabetes, and stroke (Jordan et al., 2014).

Wandering

Wandering is a broad term associated with a diverse set of behaviors. It can include aimless locomotion with a repetitive pattern, hyperactivity, and excessive walking, as well as leaving a safe environment and becoming lost alone in the community (Rowe et al., 2011). Wandering can cause harm if a person with dementia exits the home or facility, elopes,* or becomes lost (Burns et al., 2012).

*Elopement: When a patient or resident who is cognitively, physically, mentally, emotionally, or chemically impaired wanders away, walks away, runs away, escapes, or otherwise leaves a caregiving facility or environment unsupervised, unnoticed, or prior to their scheduled discharge (The National Institute for Elopement Prevention and Resolution).

The Alzheimer’s Association estimates that up to 60% of persons with dementia will “wander” into the community at some point during the course of their disease (Rowe et al., 2011). In nursing homes, wandering occurs in approximately 40% to 60% of residents with dementia (Ahn & Horgas, 2013).

Wandering patterns can include moving to a specific location, lapping or circling along a path, pacing back and forth, or wandering at random. Wandering can be related to boredom, pain and discomfort, disorientation, and memory problems. People may wander out of habit or because they think something from their past needs to be done, such as going home after work, walking the dog, getting exercise, or searching for something they think they have lost.

People with Alzheimer’s disease are more likely to wander randomly than those diagnosed with other types of dementias. People with frontal-temporal dementia have a tendency to engage in pacing and lapping behaviors. Restlessness, with a compelling need for movement or pacing, has been linked to side effects of psychotropic medications, particularly antipsychotics (Burns et al., 2012).

Wandering can be a beneficial activity if there are safe places to wander. The most important goal is to prevent a person from wandering into unsafe areas, other resident’s rooms, or eloping from the facility. Wandering can be addressed or even encouraged by providing safe, looping wandering paths with interesting rest areas and providing regular exercise.

A person’s pre-dementia lifestyle may be a factor in whether they are likely to wander. Studies have indicated that people with the following characteristics are more likely than others to wander:

  • Those with an active interest in music
  • Those who have an extroverted personality showing warmth, positive emotion, altruism
  • Those who were very involved with social activities and were active in social-seeking behaviors
  • Those who were physically active
  • Those who experienced stressful events throughout their life, necessitating multiple readjustments
  • Those who respond to stress by engaging in motor activities (Futrell et al., 2010)

 

Did you Know. . .

Florida has a Silver Alert program, which provides immediate broadcast of information to the public when a cognitively impaired person becomes lost while driving or while walking. It allows local and state law enforcement to broadcast information to citizens so they can assist law enforcement in the rescue of the endangered person and notify law enforcement with helpful information. For more information, contact the Silver Alert information line, local law enforcement, or the Florida Department of Law Enforcement either online or by phone at 888 356 4774.

 

From 2008 to 2013 there were nearly 650 Silver Alerts enacted in Florida. The highest number was issued in Palm Beach County (14%). During this period more than three-quarters of the reports were issued for men. A little more than half of the reports were issued for people between 80 and 89 years of age (SASC, 2014).

Rummaging and Hoarding

Rummaging and hoarding refer to behaviors in which a person gathers, hides, or puts away items in a secretive and guarded manner. These actions are considered a type of obsessive-compulsive behavior. Rummaging and hoarding are not necessarily dangerous or unsafe but they can be frustrating for caregivers and other residents.

Hoarding can arise in those with dementia due to fear of losing money or possessions, due to lack of control, need to “save for a rainy day”, or simply out of confusion. Hoarding is associated with insecurity and anger and may be an attempt to hold onto possessions and memories from the past.

Cognitive changes such as memory loss, poor judgment, and confusion can contribute to the impulse to rummage and hoard. People may rummage out of boredom or to find something they think has been misplaced. They may have a fear of being robbed or feel a need to protect their possessions. Rummaging through familiar items may create a sense of safety and security. Confusion can lead to rummaging through another person’s belongings, which can be particularly frustrating for neighboring residents.

To address rummaging and hoarding behaviors, try to determine what triggers or causes the behavior and look at the consequences, if any. The reason for rummaging and hoarding may not be clear to you but there may be a perfectly good reason why someone with dementia is rummaging.

Rummaging through another person’s belongings can be prevented by installing locks on drawers and closets. The rummaging impulse might be satisfied by creating a rummaging room or a bag or drawer of items that the person can pick through. Restricting all rummaging and hoarding can be frustrating for a person who enjoys these activities.

In a home setting, place important items such as credit cards or keys out of reach or in a locked cabinet. Consider having mail delivered to a post office box and check wastepaper baskets before disposing of trash. Other recommendations:

  • Look for patterns
  • Get rid of poisonous items such as caustic liquids and poisonous plants
  • Label cabinets, doors, and closets (with words or pictures) to help the person find what they are looking for
  • Reduce clutter
  • Observe carefully to learn the person’s hiding places
  • Check garbage for missing items

Psychosis

Psychosis is a disturbance in the perception or appreciation of objective reality (Burns et al., 2012). Symptoms can include delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia. A delusion is a false idea or belief or a misinterpretation of a situation. Hallucinations are sensory events in which a person hears, tastes, smells, sees, or feels something that is not there.

People suffering from paranoia can become suspicious of caregivers or friends; they may feel these people are stealing from them or planning them harm. Sensory deficits can contribute to delusions, and particularly hallucinations, because of the distortion of sound or sight.

Delusions and hallucinations can be caused by health factors such as urinary tract infections or environmental factors such as poor lighting or sensory overload. Changes in the brain can also contribute to these behaviors, especially changes related to sensory awareness, memory, and decreased ability to communicate or be understood.

Visual hallucinations can occur in the moderate to severe stages of dementia and are particularly common in those with Lewy body dementia. While atypical antipsychotics are sometimes used off-label to manage hallucinations, in a person with Lewy body dementia, antipsychotic medications can make hallucinations worse. In a person with new onset of visual hallucinations, the number one cause is medication side effects. For this reason, all medications the person is receiving should be carefully reviewed. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medications, as well as herbal supplements.

The first step in the management of delusions and hallucinations is to rule out delirium as a cause. Another important factor is to determine if the claims by the person with dementia actually did occur (Burns et al., 2012).

Observe the behavior and listen to what the person experiencing the paranoia or delusion has to say. Is the feeling pleasant or frightening? If the hallucination elicits a fearful or negative response, address the person’s need to regain comfort. For example, you may ask “What will make you feel safe or comfortable?”

When communicating with someone who is expressing paranoia or delusions, realize that even if their complaint is not true, it is very real for that person. Do not to argue; simply explaining the truth of the situation will not work. Do not agree with the person or further validate the paranoia or delusion, but respond to the person’s emotion.

To manage hallucinations, decrease auditory and visual stimuli and evaluate for visual or hearing impairment. Delusions and hallucinations can be addressed using behavioral interventions or, in some cases, antipsychotic medication. Atypical antipsychotics have largely replaced typical or traditional antipsychotics as the main treatment for psychosis, hallucinations, and delusions in those with dementia (Burns et al., 2012).

Sleep Disturbances

Sleep disturbances are very common among older adults and are of particular concern in people with dementia. Sleep disturbances probably contribute to the onset and severity of some behavioral problems, particularly anxiety, increased confusion, wandering, and sundowning.*

*Sundowning: increased confusion and restlessness in the late afternoon and early evening, possibly due to damage to the part of the brain that regulates sleep patterns.

The symptoms of sleep disruption vary according to the type of dementia and may present with the following features:

  • Increased sleep latency
  • Nocturnal sleep fragmentation
  • Increased early-morning awakenings
  • Decreased total sleep time and decreased sleep efficiency
  • Decreased slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement (rem) sleep
  • Nocturnal confusion
  • Increased daytime napping and excessive daytime sleepiness
  • Agitation, verbally disruptive behaviors, hallucinations, and nighttime wandering (Burns et al., 2012)

Studies have suggested that approximately one-quarter to one-third of those with Alzheimer’s disease have problems with sleep, partly due to the degeneration of neurons in the part of the brain that controls circadian rhythms. Sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, medical and psychiatric issues, and environmental and behavioral factors often predate the onset of dementia. Chronic pain also interferes with sleep and disturbed sleep reduces the pain threshold (Deschenes & McCurry, 2009).

Medications used to treat the psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia, as well as those used to slow the progression of dementia, can cause daytime sleepiness and lead to sleep disturbances. Short-term sleep disturbances in people with dementia are often treated with antidepressants, benzodiazepines, or non-benzodiazepines although there is limited evidence to support their long-term safety in cognitively impaired older adults (Deschenes & McCurry, 2009).

Before treating sleep disturbances look for potentially treatable causes, which can include pain, hunger and thirst, the need to urinate, infections, adverse drug reactions, and even noise. Some non-pharmacologic treatments that have been used to treat sleep disorders include:

  • Light therapy
  • Good sleep hygiene practices
  • Exercise during the day
  • Individualized social activities
  • Restriction or elimination of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol
  • Calm atmosphere
  • Biofeedback (Deschenes & McCurry, 2009)
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