ATrain Education

 

Continuing Education for Health Professionals

Kentucky: Domestic Violence

Module 14

Domestic Violence: Prevention and Education

Most of the efforts directed against intimate personal violence center on reducing future additional risk, dealing with the consequences of the violence for the victim, and processing the perpetrators through the judicial system. As with its first agenda in 2002, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control’s new agenda for 2009–2018 reiterates the goal for prevention and education: stopping intimate personal violence from happening in the first place (primary prevention). Research efforts are urgently needed surrounding “early risk and protective factors related to perpetration.” A better understanding of these factors should lead to more effective prevention programs. As before, prevention must address individual, relationship, community, and societal factors (NCIPC, 2009).

The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control has identified two tiers of research priorities for the next ten years aimed at preventing sexual violence and intimate partner violence. These ambitious goals reflect the strong need for detailed and broad-based data for the formulation and implementation of prevention strategies for sexual violence and intimate partner violence.

Tier 1 includes:

  • Develop and evaluate surveillance methods for sexual violence and intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration.
  • Examine the etiology of sexual violence and intimate partner violence perpetration to identify modifiable risk and protective factors and optimal times and strategies for prevention.
  • Clarify the contexts within which violence occurs and the associations among types and subtypes of sexual violence and intimate partner violence, other types of violence, other risk behaviors, and other health outcomes to determine implications for prevention of perpetration.
  • Examine the role of disparities in the occurrence and development of sexual violence and intimate partner violence and determine implications for prevention of perpetration.
  • Evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of programs, strategies, and policies across all levels of the social ecology to prevent and interrupt development of perpetration of sexual violence and intimate partner violence.
  • Evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of programs, strategies, and policies to prevent both sexual violence and intimate partner violence, multiple types of sexual violence and intimate partner violence, and other forms of violence.

Tier 2 includes:

  • Assess the cost and health burden of sexual violence and intimate partner violence throughout the life span.
  • Evaluate the economic efficiency of programs, strategies, and policies to prevent perpetration of sexual violence and intimate partner violence.
  • Evaluate interventions for persons exposed to sexual violence and intimate partner violence to reduce risk for associated negative health consequences.
  • Conduct dissemination and implementation research regarding programs, strategies, and policies used in the primary prevention of sexual violence and intimate partner violence.
  • Examine when and how to adapt effective programs, strategies, and policies to prevent sexual violence and intimate partner violence for new settings and among diverse populations (NCIPC, 2009).

The World Health Organization, following its ten-country survey of violence against women made the following recommendations for prevention and education:

  • Strengthen national commitment and action by promoting gender equality and women’s human rights.
  • Promote primary prevention including giving higher priority to child sexual abuse.
  • Involve educators.
  • Strengthen healthcare provider response.
  • Provide support services for women living with violence.
  • Sensitize the criminal justice system.
  • Support research and collaboration and increase donor support. (WHO, 2005)
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