Abimbola S, Asthana S, Montenegro C, Guinto RR, Jumbam DT, Louskieter L, et al. (2021). Addressing power asymmetries in global health: Imperatives in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS Med 18(4): e1003604. Doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003604. Retrieved April 6, 2022 from https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1003604.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). (2021, December). National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report. AHRQ Pub. No. 21(22)-0054-EF. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/research/findings/nhqrdr/2021qdr.pdf.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). (2018). Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/final-reports/iomracereport/reldatasum.html.
Alcalde-Rubio, L., Hernández-Aguado, I., Parker, L.A. et al. (2020). Gender disparities in clinical practice: are there any solutions? Scoping review of interventions to overcome or reduce gender bias in clinical practice. Int J Equity Health 19, 166. Doi:10.1186/s12939-020-01283-4. Retrieved November 28, 2022 from https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12939-020-01283-4.
Amutah C, Greenidge K, Mante A, et al. (2021). Misrepresenting Race—The Role of Medical Schools in Propagating Physician Bias. N Engl J Med 384;9. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMms2025768.
Bielińska K, Chowaniec A, Doričić R et al. (2022). Equal access to healthcare in national legislations: how do Croatia, Germany, Poland, and Slovenia counteract discrimination in healthcare? BMC Health Serv Res 22, 100. Doi:10.1186/s12913-021-07453-6. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-021-07453-6#Abs1.
Bergmann PJ, Ahlgren NA, Torres Stone RA. (2022). County-level societal predictors of COVID-19 cases and deaths changed through time in the United States: A longitudinal ecological study. PLoS Global Public Health. Doi:10.1371/journal.pgph.0001282. Retrieved November 23, 2022 from https://journals.plos.org/globalpublichealth/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgph.0001282#sec001.
Bernauer W, Slowey G. (2020). COVID-19, extractive industries, and indigenous communities in Canada: Notes towards a political economy research agenda. Extr Ind Soc. 2020;7(3):844-846. Doi:10.1016/j.exis.2020.05.012. Retrieved November 15, 2022 From https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273156/.
Bongiovanni T, Shamasunder S, Brown W III, Rivera Carpenter C, Pantell M, Ghali B, et al. (2022). Lessons learned from academic medical centers’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic in partnership with the Navajo Nation. PLoS ONE 17(4): e0265945. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0265945. Retrieved November 23, 2022 from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0265945.
Brusa A, Pesič A, Proverbio AM. (2021). Learning positive social information reduces racial bias as indexed by N400 response. PLoS ONE. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0260540. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0260540.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2021, December 9). Health Equity Guiding Principles for Inclusive Communication. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://www.cdc.gov/healthcommunication/Health_Equity.html.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2021, August 24). Inclusive Communication Principles. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://www.cdc.gov/healthcommunication/Health_Equity_Lens.html.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2014). Cultural Competence Assessment Tool for State Asthma Programs and Partners, National Asthma Control Program, National Center for Environmental Health. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://www.cdc.gov/asthma/pdfs/CCAT.pdf.
Coen-Sanchez K, Idriss-Wheeler D, Bancroft X, et al. (2022). Reproductive justice in patient care: tackling systemic racism and health inequities in sexual and reproductive health and rights in Canada. Reprod Health 19, 44. Doi:10.1186/s12978-022-01328-7. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12978-022-01328-7.
Commonwealth Fund, The. (2022). A Racial Equity Framework for Assessing Health Policy. In: Issue Briefs, January 20, 2022. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2022/jan/racial-equity-framework-assessing-health-policy.
Coombs NC, Meriwether WE, Caringi J, Newcomer SR. (2021). Barriers to healthcare access among U.S. adults with mental health challenges: A population-based study. Population Health, Volume 15, 2021. Doi:10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100847. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352827321001221.
Corscadden L, Levesque JF, Lewis V, et al. (2018). Factors associated with multiple barriers to access to primary care: an international analysis. Int J Equity Health 17, 28. Doi:10.1186/s12939-018-0740-1. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12939-018-0740-1.
Culhane-Pera KA, Pergament SL, Kasouaher MY et al. (2021). Diverse community leaders’ perspectives about quality primary healthcare and healthcare measurement: qualitative community-based participatory research. Int J Equity Health 20, 226. Doi:10.1186/s12939-021-01558-4. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12939-021-01558-4.
Department of Justice (DOJ). (Nd)). Understanding Bias: A Resource Guide. Community Relations Services Toolkit for Policing. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://www.justice.gov/file/1437326/download#:~:text=Explicit%20bias%20is%20the%20traditional,are%20examples%20of%20explicit%20biases.
Diop MS, Taylor CN, Murillo SN et al. (2021). This is our lane: talking with patients about racism. Women’s Midlife Health 7, 7. Doi:10.1186/s40695-021-00066-3. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://womensmidlifehealthjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40695-021-00066-3.
Dirks LG, Pratt W, Casanova-Perez R, et al. (2022). Battling Bias in Primary Care Encounters: Informatics Designs to Support Clinicians. In CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Extended Abstracts (CHI ’22 Extended Abstracts), April 29–May 05, 2022, New Orleans, LA, USA. ACM, New York, NY. Doi:10.1145/3491101.3519825. Retrieved November 29, 2022 from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1eLvie6Pm0j7bOwuzvbkQSIeG_uXIGjD0/view.
Douglas MD, Josiah Willock R, Respress E, et al. (2019). Applying a Health Equity Lens to Evaluate and Inform Policy. Ethn Dis. 2019 Jun 13;29(Suppl 2):329-342. Doi:10.18865/ed.29.S2.329. Retrieved November 30, 2022 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604770/.
Dror IE. (2020). Cognitive and Human Factors in Expert Decision Making: Six Fallacies and the Eight Sources of Bias. Anal. Chem. 2020, 92, 12, 7998–8004. Doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00704. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00704#.
Elek JK and Miller AL. (2021). The Evolving Science on Implicit Bias. An Updated Resource for the State Court Community. National Center for State Courts. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://ncsc.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/accessfair/id/911.
Fawzy A, Wu TD, Wang K, et al. (2022). Racial and Ethnic Discrepancy in Pulse Oximetry and Delayed Identification of Treatment Eligibility Among Patients With COVID-19. JAMA Internal Medicine. Doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.1906. Retrieved June 1, 2022 from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2792653.
Featherston R, Downie LE, Vogel AP, Galvin KL. (2020). Decision making biases in the allied health professions: A systematic scoping review. PLoS ONE 15(10): e0240716. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0240716. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240716.
Fiscella K, Epstein RM, Griggs JJ, Marshall MM, Shields CG. (2021). Is physician implicit bias associated with differences in care by patient race for metastatic cancer-related pain? PLoS ONE 16(10): e0257794. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0257794. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257794.
FitzGerald C, Martin A, Berner D, et al. (2019). Interventions designed to reduce implicit prejudices and implicit stereotypes in real world contexts: a systematic review. BMC Psychol 7, 29. Doi:10.1186/s40359-019-0299-7. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://bmcpsychology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40359-019-0299-7#Sec1.
FitzGerald C, Hurst S. Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: a systematic review. BMC Med Ethics. 2017;18(1):19. Doi:10.1186/s12910-017-0179-8. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5333436/.
Galanti G-A. (2019). The Challenge of Serving and Working with Diverse Populations in American Hospitals. Retrieved December 7, 2022 from https://hsc.unm.edu/community/toolkit/docs8/culturaldiversity.pdf.
Geneviève LD, Martani A, Shaw D, et al. (2020). Structural racism in precision medicine: leaving no one behind. BMC Med Ethics 21, 17. Doi:10.1186/s12910-020-0457-8. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://bmcmedethics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12910-020-0457-8.
Global Health 50/50. (2020). The Global Health 50/50 Report 2020: Power, Privilege and Priorities. London, UK. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from https://globalhealth5050.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Power-Privilege-and-Priorities-2020-Global-Health-5050-Report.pdf.
Gonzalez CM, Grochowalski JH, Garba RJ, et al. (2021). Validity evidence for a novel instrument assessing medical student attitudes toward instruction in implicit bias recognition and management. BMC Med Educ 21, 205. DOI:10.1186/s12909-021-02640-9. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://bmcmededuc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12909-021-02640-9.
Gradellini C, Gómez-Cantarino S, Dominguez-Isabel P, Molina-Gallego B, Mecugni D and Ugarte-Gurrutxaga MI. (2021). Cultural Competence and Cultural Sensitivity Education in University Nursing Courses. A Scoping Review. Front. Psychol. 12:682920. Doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.682920. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.682920/full#h2.
Guth M and Artiga S. (2022). Medicaid and Racial Health Equity. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/medicaid-and-racial-health-equity/.
Health and Human Services (HHS). (2022). Guide to Providing Effective Communication and Language Assistance Services. In: Think Cultural Health. Retrieved December 15, 2022 from https://thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/education/communication-guide.
Healthy People 2030. (2022). Social Determinants of Health. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health.
Howard University School of Law. (2018). Jim Crow Era. Retrieved December 7, 2022 from https://library.law.howard.edu/civilrightshistory/blackrights/jimcrow.
Jeske M, Vasquez E, Fullerton SM, et al. (2022). Beyond inclusion: Enacting team equity in precision medicine research. PLoS ONE. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0263750. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0263750#sec011.
Jhangiani R, Tarry H, & Stangor C. (2022). Principles of social psychology (1st international H5P edition). BCcampus. https://opentextbc.ca/socialpsycholo. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://opentextbc.ca/socialpsychology/.
Jibrel E. (2021). Looking Forward: Key Milestones in Health Equity! In: Conversations in Equity. Office of Minority Health and Health Equity. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://blogs.cdc.gov/healthequity/2021/12/14/looking-forward-key-milestones-in-health-equity/.
Jones E. (2021). Many Black Americans aren’t rushing to get the COVID-19 vaccine—a long history of medical abuse suggests why. The Conversation. February 24, 2021. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://theconversation.com/many-black-americans-arent-rushing-to-get-the-covid-19-vaccine-a-long-history-of-medical-abuse-suggests-why-152368.
Julian Z, Hardeman RR, and Huerto R. (2020). Doctors can’t treat COVID-19 effectively without recognizing the social justice aspects of health. The Conversation. June 3, 2020. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://theconversation.com/doctors-cant-treat-covid-19-effectively-without-recognizing-the-social-justice-aspects-of-health-138787.
Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF). (2022). What are the Implications of the Overturning of Roe v. Wade for Racial Disparities? Retrieved November 21, 2022 from https://www.kff.org/racial-equity-and-health-policy/issue-brief/what-are-the-implications-of-the-overturning-of-roe-v-wade-for-racial-disparities/.
Lee DC, Liang H, & Shi L. (2021). The convergence of racial and income disparities in health insurance coverage in the United States. Int J Equity Health 20, 96. Doi:10.1186/s12939-021-01436-z. Retrieved November, 2022 from https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12939-021-01436-z#Sec1.
Lett E, Orji WU, Sebro R. (2018). Declining racial and ethnic representation in clinical academic medicine: A longitudinal study of 16 US medical specialties. PLoS ONE 13(11): e0207274. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0207274. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207274.
Luu L. (2021). The Negative Effects of Gender Bias in Health Care. Frontiers. Retrieved November 28, 2022 from http://frontiersmag.wustl.edu/2021/04/01/the-negative-effects-of-gender-bias-in-health-care/.
Mapes BM, Foster CS, Kusnoor SV, Epelbaum MI, AuYoung M, Jenkins G, et al. (2020). Diversity and inclusion for the All of Us research program: A scoping review. PLoS ONE 15(7): e0234962. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0234962. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234962.
Miani C, Wandschneider L, Niemann J, Batram-Zantvoort S, Razum O. (2021). Measurement of gender as a social determinant of health in epidemiology-A scoping review. PLoS One. 2021 Nov 3;16(11):e0259223. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0259223. Retrieved December 1, 2022 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8565751/.
Michigan Department of Civil Rights (MDCR). (2022). Training Solutions Through an Equity Lens. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.michigan.gov/mdcr/-/media/Project/Websites/mdcr/racial-equity/training-solutions-racial-equity.pdf?rev=577715f711814ffbbe2fd95627a9b570.
Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS). (2019). Medicaid Health Equity Project Year 9 Report (HEDIS 2019). Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs/assistance-programs/medicaid/medicaid-health-equity-reports.
Michigan Social Health Interventions to Eliminate Disparities (MSHIELD). (2022). Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1aXaimcUmk99eTf9aErtS2UtbfJH_3hgx/view.
Michigan.gov. (2021, September 24). FAQs for Implicit Bias Training. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.michigan.gov/documents/lara/Implicit_Bias_FAQs_FINAL_7.22.2021_731300_7.pdf.
Michling T. (2022). Pandemic Demonstrates Importance of Medicaid Safety Net. Citizens Research Council of Michigan. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://crcmich.org/pandemic-demonstrates-importance-of-medicaid-safety-net.
Morris M, Cooper RL, Ramesh A., et al. (2019). Training to reduce LGBTQ-related bias among medical, nursing, and dental students and providers: a systematic review. BMC Med Educ 19, 325. Doi:10.1186/s12909-019-1727-3. Retrieved December 5, 2022 from https://bmcmededuc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12909-019-1727-3.
Muramatsu N and Chin M. (2022). Battling Structural Racism Against Asians in the United States: Call for Public Health to Make the “Invisible” Visible. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 28(Supplement 1):p S3-S8, January/February 2022. Doi:10.1097/PHH.0000000000001411. Retrieved January 26, 2023 from https://journals.lww.com/jphmp/fulltext/2022/01001/battling_structural_racism_against_asians_in_the.2.aspx.
Napier AD, Depledge M, Knipper M, et al. (2017). Culture matters: using a cultural contexts of health approach to enhance policy-making. In: Cultural Contexts of Health and Well-being. WHO Policy Brief, No 1. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/334269/14780_World-Health-Organisation_Context-of-Health_TEXT-AW-WEB.pdf.
Nápoles G, Grau I, Concepción L, et al. (2022). Modeling implicit bias with fuzzy cognitive maps. Neurocomputing Volume 481, 7 April 2022, Pages 33-45. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092523122200090X.
National Center for Cultural Competence (NCCC). (Nd). Conscious & Unconscious Biases in Health Care. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://nccc.georgetown.edu/bias/.
National Institutes of Health (NIH). (2022, March 2). Ending Structural Racism. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.nih.gov/ending-structural-racism/unite.
Nuako A, Liu J, Pham G, Smock N, James A, Baker T, et al. (2022). Quantifying rural disparity in healthcare utilization in the United States: Analysis of a large midwestern healthcare system. PLoS ONE 17(2): e0263718. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0263718. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0263718.
Odeny B. (2021). Closing the health equity gap: A role for implementation science? PLoS Med 18(9): e1003762. Doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003762. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1003762.
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). (2022). Social Determinants of Health. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://health.gov/healthypeople/priority-areas/social-determinants-health.
Office of Minority Health (OMH). (2022). National CLAS Standards. Retrieved April 8, 2022 from https://thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/clas/standards.
Payne BK, Vuletich HA, Brown-Iannuzzi JL. (2019). Historical roots of implicit bias in slavery. PNAS. 116 (24). Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.1818816116.
Petersen EE, Davis NL, Goodman D, et al. (2019). Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Pregnancy-Related Deaths — United States, 2007–2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:762–765. Doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6835a3. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6835a3.htm?s_cid=mm6835a3_w.
Rajan K. (2022). Navajo researcher's work highlights his community's resilience during pandemic. Medical Xpress. Retrieved November 23, 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-09-navajo-highlights-resilience-pandemic.html.
Shai, A., Koffler, S. & Hashiloni-Dolev, Y. (2021). Feminism, gender medicine and beyond: a feminist analysis of “gender medicine”. Int J Equity Health 20, 177. Doi:10.1186/s12939-021-01511-5. Retrieved November 28, 2022 from https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12939-021-01511-5
Stern S. (2019). America's Forgotten Mass Imprisonment of Women Believed to Be Sexually Immoral. In: History Stories. Retrieved February 19, 2023 from https://www.history.com/news/chamberlain-kahn-act-std-venereal-disease-imprisonment-women.
Sukhera J. (2020). Beware of bias training: Addressing systemic racism is not an easy fix. The Conversation. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://theconversation.com/beware-of-bias-training-addressing-systemic-racism-is-not-an-easy-fix-142587.
Towe VL, May LW, Huang W, et al. (2021). Drivers of differential views of health equity in the U.S.: is the U.S. ready to make progress? Results from the 2018 National Survey of Health Attitudes. BMC Public Health 21, 175. Doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10179-z. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-021-10179-z.
University College of London (UCL). (2020). Gender and Determinants of Health. The UCL Centre for Gender, Health and Social Justice. Retrieved December 1, 2022 from http://www.ighgc.org/gender-and-determinants-of-health.
University of Michigan (U of M). (2022). Defining DEI. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://diversity.umich.edu/about/defining-dei/.
University of Michigan (U of M). (2021). New Health Equity Project aims to significantly reduce health disparities for vulnerable residents in five Michigan counties. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.uofmhealth.org/news/archive/202109/new-health-equity-project-aims-significantly-reduce-health.
University of Wisconsin (UW). (2020). University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. County Health Rankings State Report 2020. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from file:///C:/Users/laure/Downloads/CHR2020_MI_v2.pdf.
van Ryn M, Hardeman R, Phelan SM, et al. (2015). Medical School Experiences Associated with Change in Implicit Racial Bias Among 3547 Students: A Medical Student CHANGES Study Report. J Gen Intern Med. 2015;30(12):1748-1756. Doi:10.1007/s11606-015-3447-7. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4636581/.
Vela MB, Erondu AI, Smith NA, Peek ME, Woodruff JN, Chin MH. (2022). Eliminating Explicit and Implicit Biases in Health Care: Evidence and Research Needs. Annual Review of Public Health 2022 43:1, 477-501. Retrieved December 5, 2022 from https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-052620-103528.
Wang Q, Jeon HJ. (2020). Bias in bias recognition: People view others but not themselves as biased by preexisting beliefs and social stigmas. PLoS One. 2020 Oct 9;15(10):e0240232. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240232. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7546453/.
Wilkes M and Schriger D. (2022, April 4). Op-Ed: Why won’t UC clinics serve patients with state-funded health insurance? Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.latimes.com/opinion/story/2022-04-04/university-of-california-uc-medi-cal-healthcare-insurance.
Yearby R, Clark B, & Figueroa JF. (2022). Structural Racism in Historical and Modern US Health Care Policy. Health Affairs Vol. 41, No. 2: Racism & Health. Doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2021.01466. Retrieved November 2, 2022 from https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.2021.01466.
Yellow Horse AJ, Deschine Parkhurst NA, and Huyser KR. (2020). COVID-19 in New Mexico Tribal Lands: Understanding the Role of Social Vulnerabilities and Historical Racisms. Front. Sociol. 5:610355. Doi:10.3389/fsoc.2020.610355. Retrieved November 22, 2022 from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsoc.2020.610355/full#B47.