COVID-19: How, What, When, and WherePage 13 of 13

11 References

Anastassopoulou C, Russo L, Tsakris A, Siettos C). (March 31, 2020). Data-based analysis, modelling and forecasting of the COVID-19 outbreak. Retrieved July 27, 2020 from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230405.

APM Research Lab. (2020). The Color of Coronavirus: COVID-19 Deaths by Race and Ethnicity in the U.S. Retrieved August 12, 2020 from https://www.apmresearchlab.org/covid/deaths-by-race.

Atlantic, The. (2020). The COVID Racial Data Tracker. Retrieved August 4, 2020 from https://covidtracking.com/race.

Baranauckas C, Stebbins S. (2020). Minorities are disproportionately affected by COVID-19: This is how it varies by state. Retrieved July 30, 2020 from minority-communities-in-every-state/41764053/ https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2020/07/21/how-covid-19-has-disproportionately-affected.

Bausch DG, Schwarz L. (2014). Outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea: Where ecology meets economy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8(7): e3056. Doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003056. Retrieved July 15, 2020 from http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003056.

Bell DM. (2004). World Health Organization Working Group on International and Community Transmission of SARS: Public health interventions and SARS spread, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10(11):1900-1906. Doi:10.3201/eid1011.040729. Retrieved July 17, 2020 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3329045/.

Bergstrom CT, Dean N. (2020, May 1). What the Proponents of ‘Natural’ Herd Immunity Don’t Say. Retrieved August 8, 2020 from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/01/opinion/sunday/coronavirus-herd-immunity.html.

Billingsley A. (2020, May 22). The Latest in Coronavirus (COVID-19) Testing Methods and Availability. Retrieved June 10, 2020 from https://www.goodrx.com/blog/coronavirus-covid-19-testing-updates-methods-cost-availability/#home-test.

Breban R, Vardavas R, Blower S. (2007). Theory versus data: How to calculate R0. PlosOne. Retrieved August 2, 2020 from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1804098/.

Cable News Network (CNN). (2020). CDC report offers detailed demographic breakdown of who is getting coronavirus. Retrieved June 29, 2020 from https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/15/politics/cdc-coronavirus-demographics-report/index.html.

Calo WA, Murray A, Francis E, et al. (2020). Reaching the Hispanic community about COVID-19 through existing chronic disease prevention programs: Preventing chronic disease. Retrieved July 17, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2020/20_0165.htm.

Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, et al. (2020, July 4). Features, Evaluation and Treatment of Coronavirus (COVID-19). Treasure Island,  FL: StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved July 22, 2020 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554776/.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020a). Health Equity Considerations and Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups. Retrieved August 4, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethnicity.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fneed-extra-precautions%2Fracial-ethnic-minorities.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020b). COVIDView Summary ending on July 4, 2020. Retrieved August 10, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/covidview/past-reports/07102020.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020, July 30). COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines: General Considerations. Retrieved August 9, 2020 from https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/critical-care/general-considerations/.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020, July 15). CDC’s Diagnostic Test for COVID-19 Only and Supplies. Retrieved August 8, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/virus-requests.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020, July 10). Similarities and Differences Between Flu and COVID-19. Retrieved July 13, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/flu/symptoms/flu-vs-covid19.htm#table.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020, July 5). Serious Adverse Health Events Associated with Methanol-based Hand Sanitizers. Retrieved August 14, 2020 from https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2020/han00434.asp.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020, July 2). Overview of Testing for SARS-CoV-2. Retrieved July 13, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/testing-overview.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020, June 30). Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Retrieved July 30, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020, June 12). Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers: CDC—2019-nCoV Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel. Retrieved August 8, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/Factsheet-for-Healthcare-Providers-2019-nCoV.pdf.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020, May 28). Antibody Testing At-A-Glance Recommendations for Professionals. Retrieved August 4, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/resources/antibody-tests-professional.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020, May 26). Interim Guidance on Developing a COVID-19 Case Investigation & Contact Tracing Plan: Overview. Retrieved July 22, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/contact-tracing/contact-tracing-plan/overview.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020, April 29). Contact Tracing: Part of a Multipronged Approach to Fight the COVID-19 Pandemic. Retrieved July 17, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/principles-contact-tracing.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020, February 15). Human Coronavirus Types. Retrieved July 29, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/types.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2019). MERS Symptoms & Complications. Retrieved July 17, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/about/symptoms.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2019, November 5). Molecular Diagnostic Testing in Clinical and Public Health Laboratories. Retrieved August 8, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/labquality/molecular-methods.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (CDC). (2018, June 29). Vaccines & Immunizations. Retrieved July 28, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/whatifstop.htm.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2002). Guidelines for Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings: Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. MMWR 51(No. RR16). Retrieved July 22, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5116.pdf.

Chin A. (2020, July 20). Messenger of DNA, therapeutics and coronavirus: How are they all linked? PLOS Blog. Retrieved July 30, 2020 from https://yoursay.plos.org/2020/07/20/messenger-of-dna-therapeutics-and-coronavirus-how-are-they-all-linked/.

Chughtai AA, Seale H, Macintyre CR. (2020). Effectiveness of cloth masks for protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus 2. Emerg Infect Dis 2020 Oct. Doi:10.3201/eid2610.200948. Retrieved July 22, 2020 from https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/10/20-0948_article.

Clark E, Fredricks K, Woc-Colburn L, et al. (2020). Disproportionate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on immigrant communities in the United States. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Retrieved August 7, 2020 from https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0008484.

Clark DV, Jahrling PB, Lawler JV. (2012). Clinical management of filovirus-infected patients. Viruses 4(9):1668–86. Doi:10.3390/v4091668. Retrieved July 15, 2020 from http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/4/9/1668/htm.

Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID). (2019). Delamater PL, Street EJ, Leslie TF, et  al. Complexity of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). Retrieved August 2, 2020 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302597/.

Eisenberg J. (2020). R0: How scientists quantify the intensity of an outbreak like coronavirus and predict the pandemic’s spread. The Conversation (website). Creative Commons. Retrieved August 2, 2020 from https://theconversation.com/r0-how-scientists-quantify-the-intensity-of-an-outbreak-like-coronavirus-and-predict-the-pandemics-spread-130777.

Doshi S, Jordan A, Kelly K, Solomon D. (2020). The COVID-19 Response in Indian Country: A Federal Failure. Center for American Progress. Retrieved August 12, 2020 from https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/green/reports/2020/06/18/486480/covid-19-response-indian-country/.

Fink S. (2014, September 3). Cuts at WHO Hurt Response to Ebola Crisis. The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2020 from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/04/world/africa/cuts-at-who-hurt-response-to-ebola-crisis.html.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2020, July 16). Coronavirus Testing Basics. Retrieved August 4, 2020 from https://www.fda.gov/media/140161/download.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2020, May 4). FDA Factsheet: Antibody test oversight and use for COVID-19. Retrieved June 9, 2020 from https://www.fda.gov/media/137599/download.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2019). Antibacterial Soap? You can skip it, use plain soap and water. Retrieved July 22, 2020 from https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/antibacterial-soap-you-can-skip-it-use-plain-soap-and-water.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2017). FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA warns about rare but serious allergic reactions with the skin antiseptic chlorhexidine gluconate. Retrieved July 22, 2020 from https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-drug-safety-communication-fda-warns-about-rare-serious-allergic-reactions-skin-antiseptic.

Frieden TR, Lee CT. (2020, June). Identifying and interrupting superspreading events: Implications for control of severe acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases 26(6). Retrieved August 9, 2020 from https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/6/20-0495_article.

Gander K. (2020). Even Mild Obesity Linked to Severe COVID-19, Death, in Study. Newsweek. Retrieved August 8, 2020 from https://www.newsweek.com/even-mild-obesity-linked-severe-covid-19-death-study-1518189.

Health and Human Services (HHS). (2020). Vaccines Protect Your Community. Retrieved July 29, 2020 from https://www.vaccines.gov/basics/work/protection.

Healthline. (2020). What Is R0? Gauging Contagious Infections. Retrieved August 2, 2020 from https://www.healthline.com/health/r-nought-reproduction-number.

Indian Health Services (IHS). (2019). Disparities. Retrieved June 29, 2020 from https://www.ihs.gov/newsroom/factsheets/disparities/.

Keeling MJ, Hollingsworth TD, Read JM. (2020, Jun 22). Efficacy of contact tracing for the containment of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). J Epidemiol Community Health jech-2020-214051. Doi:10.1136/jech-2020-214051. Retrieved July 16, 2020 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307459/.

Kim L, Whitaker M, O’Halloran A, et al. (2020). Hospitalization rates and characteristics of children aged <18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19—COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1 to July 25, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Retrieved August 8, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6932e3.htm?s.

Kinsman J. (2012). “A time of fear”: Local, national, and international responses to a large Ebola outbreak in Uganda. Globalization and Health 8:15. Doi:10.1186/1744-8603-8-15. Retrieved July 15, 2020 from http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/8/1/15.

Klompas M, Baker MA, Rhee C. (2020, July 13). Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Theoretical considerations and available evidence. JAMA. Published online. Doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12458. Retrieved July 29, 2020 from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2768396.

Kristof N. (2020a). The Top Coronavirus Hotspots Are All Indian Lands. The New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2020 from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/30/opinion/sunday/coronavirus-native-americans.html.

Kwok KO, et al. (2019). Epidemic models of contact tracing: Systematic review of transmission studies of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Comput Struct Biotechnol J 17: 186–94. Retrieved July 17, 2020 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376160/.

Li J, Blakely D, Smith R. (2011). The Failure of R0. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine. Retrieved August 2, 2020 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3157160/.

MacNeil A, Rollin PE. (2012). Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers: Neglected tropical diseases? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6(6):e1546. Doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001546. Retrieved July 15, 2020 from http://www.plosntds.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0001546.

Mascarenhas L, Christensen J. (2020, August 8). Black and Hispanic Children Are Impacted More Severely by Coronavirus, Research Shows. Retrieved August 10, 2020 from https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/08/health/cdc-black-hispanic-children-coronavirus/index.html.

Matrajt L, Leung T. (2020). Evaluating the effectiveness of social distancing interventions to delay or flatten the epidemic curve of coronavirus disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 26(8):1740–48. Doi.10.3201/eid2608.201093. Retrieved July 21, 2020 from https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/8/20-1093_article.

Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF). (2020). Ebola. Retrieved May 29, 2020 from https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/what-we-do/medical-issues/ebola.

Mittal R, Ni R, Seo J-H. (2020, July 10). The flow physics of COVID-19. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 894. Retrieved August 9, 2020 from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-fluid-mechanics/article/flow-physics-of-covid19/476E32549012B3620D2452F30F2567F1/core-reader#.

Nania R. (2020). Blacks, Hispanics Hit Harder by the Coronavirus, Early U.S. Data Show. AARP Health Conditions and Treatments. Retrieved August 12, 2020 from https://www.aarp.org/health/conditions-treatments/info-2020/minority-communities-covid-19.html.

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). (2020, June 5). Public Health Guidance for Community-Related Exposure. Retrieved July 17, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/public-health-recommendations.html.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NAIAD-RML). (2020, July 30). COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Treatment Guidelines. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved August 3, 2020 from https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID). (2020, July 28). Experimental COVID-19 Vaccine Protects Upper and Lower Airways in Nonhuman Primates. Retrieved July 28, 2020 from https://www.niaid.nih.gov/news-events/experimental-covid-19-vaccine-protects-upper-and-lower-airways-nonhuman-primates.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID). (2019, July 2). Vaccine Adjuvants. Retrieved July 30, 2020 from https://www.niaid.nih.gov/research/vaccine-adjuvants.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID). (2019, July 1). Vaccine Types. Retrieved July 28, 2020 from https://www.niaid.nih.gov/research/vaccine-types.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID). (2020, April 6). COVID-19, MERS & SARS. Retrieved July 29, 2020 from https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/covid-19.

National Institutes of Health (NIH). (2020, July 31). NIH delivering new COVID-19 testing technologies to meet U.S. demand. Retrieved July 31, 2020 from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-delivering-new-covid-19-testing-technologies-meet-us-demand.

National Institutes of Health (NIH). (2020, July 17). Immune-Based Therapy Under Evaluation for Treatment of COVID-19. Retrieved July 30, 2020 from https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/immune-based-therapy/.

National Institutes of Health (NIH). (2020, Jun 11). Testing for SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Retrieved July 11, 2020 from https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/overview/sars-cov-2-testing/.

National Public Radio (NPR). (2020, April 14). How Contact Tracing Works and How It Can Help Reopen the Country. Retrieved August 3, 2020 from https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/04/14/833726999/how-contact-tracing-can-help-fight-coronavirus.

Nightingale F. (1860). Notes on Nursing. Oxford: Oxford University.

Nossiter A, Solomon BC. (2014, August 23). The New York Times. Those Who Serve Ebola Victims Soldier On. Retrieved July 15, 2020 from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/24/world/africa/sierra-leone-if-they-survive-in-ebola-ward-they-work-on.html?_r=0.

Parkes-Ratanshi R, Elbireer A, Mbambu B, et al. (2014). Ebola outbreak response: Experience and development of screening tools for Viral Haemorrhagic Fever (VHF) in an HIV Center of Excellence near to VHF epicentres. PLoS ONE 9(7): e100333. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100333. Retrieved July 15, 2020 from http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0100333.

PBS Newshour. (2020). How COVID-19 is impacting indigenous peoples in the U.S. Retrieved July 27, 2020 from https://www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/how-covid-19-is-impacting-indigenous-peoples-in-the-u-s.

Pew Research Center. (2020). In many states, black share of COVID-19 deaths exceeds black share of population. Retrieved August 4, 2020 from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/06/04/black-americans-face-higher-covid-19-risks-are-more-hesitant-to-trust-medical-scientists-get-vaccinated/ft_20-06-01_covidracehealth_3/.

Pink Book, The. (2020, June 29). Principles of Vaccination: Immunology and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Retrieved July 31, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/prinvac.html.

Ray R. (2020). Why are Blacks dying at higher rates from COVID-19? Brookings Institution. Retrieved August 5, 2020 from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/fixgov/2020/04/09/why-are-blacks-dying-at-higher-rates-from-covid-19/.

Sanche S, Lin YT, Xu C, et al. (2020). High contagiousness and rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Jul. Retrieved July 27, 2020 from https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/7/20-0282_article.

Santarpia JL, Rivera DN, Herrera VL, et al. (2020, July 29). Aerosol and surface contamination of SARS-CoV-2 observed in quarantine and isolation care. Sci Rep 10, 12732. Doi:10.1038/s41598-020-69286-3. Retrieved August 3, 2020 from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-69286-3.

Sengupta S. (2014, September 2). The New York Times. U.N. and Medical Group Make Appeals for Ebola Aid. Retrieved July 15, 2020 from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/03/world/africa/un-and-medical-group-make-appeals-for-ebola-aid.html.

Thebault R, Fowers A. (2020). Pandemic’s weight falls on Hispanics and Native Americans, as deaths pass 150,000. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 12, 2020 from https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2020/07/31/covid-us-death-toll-150k/?arc404=true.

U.S. News and World Reports. (2020). Hispanic Americans Being Hit Hard By COVID-19. Reported by Amy Norton. Retrieved July 2, 2020 from https://www.usnews.com/news/health-news/articles/2020-06-29/hispanic-americans-being-hit-hard-by-covid-19.

Vally H. (2019). What is herd immunity and how many people need to be vaccinated to protect a community? The Conversation (website). Creative Commons. Retrieved May 4, 2020 from https://theconversation.com/what-is-herd-immunity-and-how-many-people-need-to-be-vaccinated-to-protect-a-community-116355.

van Doremalen N, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, et al. (2020, April 16). Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 382:1564–67. Doi:10.1056/NEJMc2004973. Retrieved July 21, 2020 from https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmc2004973.

Warne D, Frizzell LB. (2014). American Indian health policy: Historical trends and contemporary issues. American Journal of Public Health. Retrieved August 12, 2020 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4035886/.

Wares J, Krehbiel S. (2020). Herd Immunity Won’t Solve Our COVID-19 Problem. The Conversation (website). Retrieved July 29, 2020 from https://theconversation.com/herd-immunity-wont-solve-our-covid-19-problem-139724.

Watson C, Cicero A, Blumenstock J, Fraser M. (2020). A national plan to enable comprehensive COVID-19 case finding and contact tracing in the U.S. Center for Health Safety. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved July 17, 2020 from https://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/our-work/pubs_archive/pubs-pdfs/2020/200410-national-plan-to-contact-tracing.pdf.

WebMD. (2020). Why Are Minorities Hardest Hit By COVID-19? Retrieved August 4, 2020 from https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200506/why-are--minorities-hardest-hit-by-covid-19#1.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2020, June 9). Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Implications for infection prevention precautions. Scientific Brief. Retrieved July 10, 2020 from https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/transmission-of-sars-cov-2-implications-for-infection-prevention-precautions.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2017, May 9). Contact Tracing. Retrieved August 3, 2020 from https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/contact-tracing.

Xu X, Ong Y, Wang D. (2020). Role of adjunctive treatment strategies in COVID-19 and a review of international and national clinical guidelines. Military Med Res 7(22). Doi:10.1186/s40779-020-00251-x. Retrieved July 30, 2020 from https://mmrjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40779-020-00251-x.

Yoon-Hendricks A.  (July 16, 2020). COVID-19 impacts Black, Hispanic and lower-income Sacramentans more severely, poll finds. Sacramento Bee. Retrieved July 20, 2020 from https://www.sacbee.com/news/coronavirus/article244253267.html.

You've reached the end of this section